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Insect pests of stored food grains Importance
Post-harvest losses account for about 10% of total food grains due to unscientific storage, insects, rodents, micro-organisms etc. In India, annual storage losses have been estimated14 -million tones worth of Rs. 7,000 crore in which insects alone account for nearly Rs. 1,300 crores (2015).Out of these post-harvest losses storage -insects alone account for 2.0 to 4.2 per cent. The major economic loss caused by storage insect pests is not always by consumption but also by the amount of contamination. About 600 species of insects have been associated with stored grain products. Nearly 100 species of insect pests of stored products cause economic losses.
SIGNIFICANCE OF INFESTATION
- Weight loss
- Viability loss
- Commercial value loss
- Consumer preference loss
- Nutritional values loss
- Contamination Heating Facilitates fungal growth Storability loss.
List of stored grain insect pests of India.
Sl. No. Name of the insect pest Scientific name Family and Order Damaging stage Host range Primary Insect pests 1. RiceWeevil Sitophilus oryzae L. Curculionidae, Coleoptera Grubs & adults All cereals 2 Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium Ever. Dermestidae, Coleoptera Grubs Grain and cereal products, mainly wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, rice, flour, malt, and noodles. 3. Lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica Fab. Bostrychidae, Coleoptera Grubs & adults All cereals and some Pulses 4. Angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. Gelechiidae, Lepidoptera Larvae All cereals 5. Pulse beetle
Callosobruchus chinensis, L.
C. maculatus Fab.Bruchidae, Coleoptera Grubs & adults All Pulses 6. Cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne Fab. Anobiidae, Coleoptera Both grubs and adults Tobacco products 7. Rice moth Corcyra cephalonica Stain. Galleriidae, Lepidoptera Larvae Rice, sorghum, maize, gram, groundnut, 8. Fig or Almond or Warehouse moth Ephestia cautella W. Pyralidae Lepidoptera Larvae Wheat, rice, maize, jowar, groundnuts, spices. 9. Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hub. Pyralidae Lepidoptera Larvae Wheat, rice, maize, jowar, groundnuts, spices.
Secondary Insect Pests
10. Flat grain beetle Cryptolestes minutus Oliv. Cucujidae, Coleoptera Grubs & adults All cereals and some Pulses ( preferably milled products) 11. Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Herb. T. confusum Jacq. Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera Grubs & adults All milled products 12. Saw toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. SilvanidaeColeoptera Grubs & adults Rice, wheat, maize, cereal products, oil seeds and dry fruits 13. Long headed flour beetle Latheticus oryzae Water. Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera 14. Rust red grain beetle Cryptolestes ferrugineus Stephens Cucujidae, Coleoptera Grubs & adults All cereals and some Pulses ( preferably milled products) 15. Drug store beetle Stegobium paniceum L. Anobiidae, Coleoptera Grubs Turmeric, coriander, ginger, dry vegetable and animal matter. 16. Tamarind beetle Caryedon serratus Oliv. Bruchidae, Coleoptera Grubs & adults Tamarind seeds, Groundnut. 17. Psocids Liposcelis spp. Troctidae Psocoptera Larvae & Adult All food grains 18. Grain mite Acarus siro L. Acaridae Acarina Nymphs & Adults All food grains