Food Grains

 
Foodgrains - Foodgrains shall be whole or broken kernels of cereals, millets and pulses meant for human consumption. Totally 26 commodities falls under this category. Includes 06 cereals, 08 millets and 12 pulses.
 
Cereals - Foodgrains of monocotyledonous origin and listed in Table 1. Their botanical and Hindi names are also given in Table 1.
 
Millets - Foodgrains of monocotyledonous origin and listed in Table 1 and roundish in shape. The botanical and Hindi names of millets are also given in Table 1.
 
Pulses - Foodgrains obtained from legumes. The list of pulses along with their botanical and Hindi names are also given in Table 1.
 
Dal or Dhal - Split halves of pulses with or without husk.
 
Refractions - All components in foodgrains which differ from sound grains. These are detailed given below.
 

a.    Foreign Matter - Includes inorganic and organic matter. The inorganic matter shall include sand, gravel, dirt, pebbles, stones, glass and metallic pieces, lumps of earth, clay and mud. Organic matter shall include husk, chaff, straw, weed seeds, fragments, bran and other inedible grains. Paddy shall be considered as foreign matter in commodities other than paddy. 

b.    Other Foodgrains - Foodgrains other than the grain under consideration. 

c.    Varietal Admixture - The presence of a variety of the same grain other than the variety in consideration. 

d.    Immature - Kernels or pieces of grain kernels that are fully developed. 

e.    Brokens - Pieces of sound kernels that are less than three-fourth of the size of the full kernels. In case of dals, pieces that are less than the size of three-fourths of the split pulses shall be considered as brokens. 

i.    Big brokens in rice - Those pieces of rice kernels which are smaller than three fourths and up to one half of the average length of the unbroken kernel. 

ii.    Medium brokens in rice - Those pieces of rice kernels which are smaller than one half and up to one quarter the average length of the unbroken kernel. 

iii.    Small brokens in rice- Those pieces of rice kernels which are smaller than one-quarter the average length of the unbroken kernel, retained on 1.10 mm IS Sieve [see IS 460 (Part I)]. 

f.    Longitudinally broken grains in rice - Kernels or pieces of rice kernels that are broken lengthwise. 

g.    Bursted grains in rice - Kernels or pieces of rice kernels having developed cracks/ rupture on the endosperm during parboiling process. 

h.    Damaged - Kernels or pieces of kernels that are sprouted or internally damaged as a result of heat, moisture, weather or microbes. 

i.    Pinpoint damaged- Kernels or pieces of kernels having minute black spot of pin point size.

j.    Discoloured- Kernels or pieces of kernels that have changed the natural colour as a result of deteriorative changes superficially. 

k.    Insect Damaged Grains - Kernels that partially or wholly bored or eaten by stored grain insect pests but do not cover germ eaten grains. 

i.    Germ Eaten Grains - Kernels in which only germ part has been eaten/destroyed by stored grain insect pests. 

ii.    Egg Spotted Grains - Kernels where insects have laid eggs glued to the outer surface of the grains and these are visible like in case of pulses. 

iii.    Weeviled Grains - Weeviled grains are grain kernels that are partially or wholly bored by insects injurious to grain but do not include germ-eaten grains and egg-spotted grains. 

l.    Kernels with Husk - Kernels or pieces of kernels carrying husk on one-sixteenth or larger portion. 

m.    Dehusked Grains - Kernels, whole or broken which have more than one-fourth of the surface area of the kernel covered with bran. 

In case of rice, the following shall also constitute additional refractions: 

n.    Chalky - Kernels or pieces of kernels of which at least half the portion is opaque, milky white in colour and brittle in nature. 

o.    Red grains - Kernels or pieces of kernels in other than red varieties having more than one-fourth of the surface covered with red cuticle. 

p.    Fragments - Pieces of kernels that are less than one-eighth of the size of the full kernels. 

q.    Degree of milling - Extent to which bran exclusive of germ portion is removed. 

r.    Fragments (in Split Pulses) - Pieces of kernels that are one-fourth or less than the full size of the split pulse. 
 

 

Test Weight (Hectolitre Weight) - The weight of hundred litres of the commodity after removal of foreign matter.
 
Dockage - Non-foodgrain material which is possible to be removed by cleaning devices or sieving through an appropriate sieve.
 
Moisture - The loss in mass caused as a result of heating for two hours at 130 to 133°C under specified conditions and expressed as percentage.

 
Table 1 List of Cereals, Millets and Pulses
 

(Clauses 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4) Sl No. Botanical Name English Name Hindi Name
(1) (2) (3) (4)
CEREALS
1. Avena byzantinaK.
(A. sterilisL. var. cultaL.)
Oats (JAI)
2. Hordeum distichon L.
Hordeum vulgare L.
Barley (JAU)
3. Oryza sativa L. Paddy (DHAAN)
4. Oryza sativa L. Rice (CHAWAL)
5. Triticum aestivum L.
Triticum durum Desf.
Tricticum sphaerococcum Perc
Triticum dicoccumSchubler
Common wheat
Macaroni wheat, durum wheat
Dwarf wheat, Short wheat, Club wheat Emmer wheat
(GEHUN)
6. Zea mays L. Maize (MAKKA)
MILLETS
1. Echinochloa frumentacea L. Barnyard millet (SAVAN)
2. Eleusine coracana Gaertn. Finger millet (RAGI)
3. Panicum miliaceum L. Proso (Cheena) (CHEENA)
4. Panicum miliareLam. Little millet (SAVA)
5. Paspalum scrobiculatum L. Kodo millet (KODON)
6. Peniselum tyhoides (Burm) Stapf& Hubbard Pearl millet (BAJRA)
7. Setaria italicaBeauv. Foxtail millet (KANGNI)
8. Sorghum vulgarePers. Sorghum (JUAR)
PULSES  
1. Cajanus cajan L. Red gram, Pigeon pea (TUR, ARHAR)
2. Cicer arietinumL. Bengal gram, Chick pea (CHANA)
3. Dolichos biflorusL. Horse gram (KULTHI)
4. Dolichos lablab L. Field bean, Flat bean (VAL)
5. Glycine max Merr Soyabean (SOYABEAN)
6. Lathyrus sativus L. Chickling vetch (KESARI,
KHESARI)
7. Lens culinarismedicus or
Ervum lens L.
Lentil (MASUR)
8. Phaseolus aconitifoliusJacq. Dew gram (MOTH)
9. Phaseolus aureusRoxb. Green gram (MUNG)
10. Phaseolus mungo L. Black gram (URD)
11. Pisum sativumL. Pea (MATAR)
12. Vigna sinensis(L.) Savi
ex Hasskarl
Vigna catjang Savi
Cow pea (CHAULA/ LOBIA) (BARBATI)